10 % OFF 3 months of tick prevention when lyme vaccine is current.
Lyme Borreliosis in Dogs
Lyme disease is one of the most common tick-borne diseases in the world but only causes symptoms in 5-10% of affected dogs. It is caused by a spirochete (bacteria) species of the Borrelia burgdorferi group. When infection leads to disease in dogs, the dominant clinical feature is recurrent lameness due to inflammation of the joints. There may also be a lack of appetite and depression. More serious complications include damage to the kidneys, and rarely, heart or nervous system disease.
Symptoms of Lyme Disease in Dogs
Many dogs who develop Lyme disease have recurrent lameness due to inflammation of the joints. Sometimes the lameness lasts for only three to four days but recurs days to weeks later, either in the same leg or in other legs. This is known as “shifting-leg lameness.” One or more joints may be swollen, warm, and painful.
Some dogs may also develop kidney problems. Lyme disease sometimes leads to glomerulonephritis – inflammation and accompanying dysfunction of the kidney’s glomeruli (essentially, a blood filter). Eventually, kidney failure may set in as the dog begins to exhibit such signs as vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, weight loss, increased urination and thirst, and abnormal fluid buildups.
Other symptoms associated with Lyme disease in dogs include:
- Stiff walk with an arched back
- Sensitivity to touch
- Difficulty breathing
- Fever, lack of appetite, and depression
- Superficial lymph nodes close to the site of the infecting tick bite may be swollen
- Heart abnormalities are reported, but rare
- Nervous system complications (rare)
Causes of Lyme Disease in Dogs
Borrelia burgdorferi, which is the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease in dogs, is transmitted by slow-feeding, hard-shelled deer ticks (Ixodes spp.). Infection typically occurs after the Borrelia-carrying tick has been attached to the dog for at 36-48 hours.
Diagnosing Lyme Disease in Dogs
You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including a background of symptoms and possible incidents that might have precipitated them. The history you provide may give your veterinarian clues as to which organs are being affected. Your veterinarian may run some combination of blood chemistry tests, a complete blood cell count, a urinalysis, fecal examinations, X-rays, and tests specific to diagnosing Lyme disease (e.g., serology). Fluid from the affected joints may also be drawn for analysis.
There are many causes for arthritis, and your veterinarian will focus on differentiating arthritis initiated by Lyme disease from other inflammatory arthritic disorders, such as trauma, degenerative joint disease, or osteochondrosis dissecans (a condition found in large, fast growing breeds of puppies). Immune-mediated diseases will also be considered as a possible cause of the symptoms. An X-ray of the painful joints will allow your doctor to examine the bones for abnormalities.
Treating Dog Lyme Disease
If the diagnosis is Lyme disease, your dog will be treated as an outpatient unless their condition is unstable (e.g., severe kidney disease). Doxycycline is the most common antibiotic that is prescribed for Lyme disease, but others are also available and effective. The recommended treatment length is usually four weeks, but longer courses may be necessary in some cases. Your veterinarian may also prescribe an anti-inflammatory (pain reliever) if your dog is especially uncomfortable.
Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment does not always completely eliminate infection with Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. Symptoms may resolve but then return at a later date, and the development of kidney disease in the future is always a worry.
Living and Management
Improvement in sudden (acute) inflammation of the joints caused by Borrelia should be seen within three to five days of antibiotic treatment. If there is no improvement within three to five days, your veterinarian will want to reevaluate your dog.
Preventing Lyme Disease in Dogs
If possible, avoid allowing your dog to roam in tick-infested environments where Lyme disease is common. Check your dog’s coat and skin daily and remove ticks. Keep your pet on a prescription for tick prevention year-round and keep your pet vaccinated with lyme vaccine.
We currently have several different options in hospital or to purchase from our online pharamcy. Bravecto is a 3 month oral chew that has proven successful with our patients over the last couple of years. After you give your pet Bravecto, it quickly reaches tissue fluids just under your dog’s or cat’s skin. When fleas and ticks feed, they ingest Bravecto and die. Bravecto Chew for Dogs starts killing fleas within 2 hours, and kills ticks within 12 hours. Bravecto Chew for Dogs kills fleas, prevents flea infestations, and kills ticks (black-legged tick, American dog tick and brown dog tick) for 12 weeks. Bravecto Chew for Dogs also kills lone star ticks for 8 weeks. Bravecto Topical Solution for Cats kills 100% of fleas within 8 hours.
Seresto is an 8 month collar available from our online pharmacy. Seresto collar kills and repels fleas before they lay eggs, kills and repels ticks, aids in the treatment and control of sarcoptic mange, kills chewing lice, and is water resistant.
A vaccine is available to help aid in the protection against lyme disease and/or the worsening of symptoms caused by the disease. As we are in a high endemic area, we recommend vaccinating against lyme vaccine for most all canine patients. If your pet has never had a vaccine, or it’s been over 6 weeks since the last vaccine – it’s recommended that 2 injections be given 2-4 weeks apart, then annually.